Instrumentation is given in the internationally accepted order: for instance, Woodwind ( means 2 flutes,2 oboes,2 clarinets,2 bassoons) – brass (4.3,3,1 means 4 horns in f, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones, 1 tuba)– timpani – percussion – harp – keyboards - plucked instruments -strings (means 1st violins 1, 2nd violins, violas, cellos, double basses).

Brackets with = sign mean that the preceding instrument doubles.
eg. ob(=ca),  means oboe doubling cor anglais.

Where there is more than one player on a particular instrument, a Roman numeral within brackets designates who doubles and what they double.
eg. 3 ob (II=ca, III=bass/ob), means Oboe 1, Oboe 2 doubling Cor Anglais, Oboe 3 doubling Bass Oboe.

Bracketed numerals after strings indicate the number of players required (not the number of desks). eg. vn (6) means 6 violins, ie 3 desks.

Bracketed numerals after Percussion indicates the number of players required.
Eg. perc (III) means 3 percussion players.

The following are abbreviations used for instruments:


picc = piccolo
fl = flute
afl = alto flute in G
bfl = bass flute in C
ob = oboe
bob = bass oboe
ca = cor anglais  (or E.H. = English horn)
ebcl. = E flat clarinet
bcl. = bass clarinet
cbcl. = contra bass clarinet
bsn. = bassoon (or fg. = fagotto)
cbsn. = contra-bassoon  (or c/fg = contra-fagotto)

ssax = soprano saxophone in Bb
asax =  alto saxophone in Eb
tsax = tenor saxophone in Bb
bsax = baritone saxophone in Eb


hn = French horn in F
ptpt = piccolo trpt
tpt = trumpet
flhn = flugel horn
trbn = tenor trombone
brbn = bass trombone
tuba = tuba

crt = cornet
euph = euphonium
btuba = bass tuba

TIMPANI (timp)

timp = timpani


tgl = triangle (or tri)
tamb = tambourine
SD = side drum
TD = tenor drum
BD – bass drum
Cym = pair of clashed cymbals
Sus.cym = suspended cymbal
Tam-t = tam-tam
t.bells = tubular bells (or chimes)
cast = castanets
crot = crotales
mcas = maracas = metal block = temple blocks
c.bell = cow-bell

glsp = glockenspiel  (or glock)
mar = marimba
vib = vibraphone
xyl = xylophone
wdbl = wood-block


hp  = harp


pno = piano
cel = celeste
org = organ
hps = harpsichord
synth = synthesizer


gtr = guitar
bgtr = bass guitar
mand – mandolin


Vn = violin (or vln)
Va = viola (or vla)
Vc= cello (vlc)
Cb = double bass (or DB)